The history of formation of bases of plastic surgery
history of formation of bases of plastic surgery
Consider, what is the history of formation of basesplastic surgery.Step scientific justification plastic surgery occurs at the beginning of the XIX century and is closely linked with the names of a whole galaxy of prominent German surgeon: S. von Graefe, J. F. Diffenbacli and B. Langenbeck.
And zvestna German surgeon Carl Ferdinand von Graefe (1787 - 1840) was a great admirer of G. Tagliacozzi.In 1816, C. Graefe had the opportunity to make a plastic outer skin of the nose from the inside surface of the shoulder region.The patient was a soldier, who cut off his nose in a duel sword.C. Graefe performed Italian sculpture with its own small modification.He perfected a method G. Tagliacozzi and created competition of Indian plastics.According to the method of C. F. von Graefe, skin flap prepared on the inner surface of the shoulder, then separated the proximal end and left him hanging for a few weeks.This was accompanied by fibrosis of the flap, and subsequently the nose bone is not needed basis.Then the flap is sutured to the defect of the nose, followed by cutting off the supply leg 15 days.
Carl Ferdinand von Grade (1787 - 1840): A - his portrait;B - its preparation method for graft rhinoplasty
In 1818, C. F. von Graefe already own material written work on rhinoplasty, «Rhinoplastik oder die Kunst, den Verlnst der Nase organisch zu ersetzen», which has become known not only in Europe,for in Russia.In his work, he criticized his contemporary sculpture techniques.The disadvantage of the Indian way of thought disfiguring scars on his forehead, a common complication of erysipelas, as well as hair growth on the flap.The disadvantages of the Italian method, he attributed the difference in skin color hands and face, as well as strengthening the complexity of the hands to the head and the difficulty for the patient to carry the armband for a long time.
history of formation of bases of plastic surgery.The contribution S. Graefe and surgery of congenital facial clefts, "cleft palate" and "cleft lip".In 1816 he proposed a simple stitching split lip after the oval cuts.Unfortunately, it is rarely mentioned by historians, giving the palm of his contemporary and compatriot Johan Friedrich Dieffenbach.In addition to the plastic nose C. Graefe began to perform the first transplant in Germany, and also offered a variety of surgical devices and instruments.
Von Graefe was the first to use the term "rhinoplasty" in the literature, and in 1836 the "Guide to Plastic Surgery» ( «Die Plastische Chirurgie») doctors NE O. Fritze and FG Reich first coined the term "plastic surgery".
In the same period, namely in 1828, J. Lisfranc, speaking in the French Academy, proposed a way to complete the reconstruction of the nose flap from her forehead.There were also the first publications on Early excision of excess skin age, which are associated with the names MsKepzie W. (1830), J. Albert (1832), G. Dupuytren (1839).
In general, in the middle of the XIX century in Europe were the first major operation to restore the face and body, it was invented many surgical methods and techniques that have made possible the emergence of later modern plastic surgery.
Berlin surgeon Johan Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792 - 1847) is considered one of the founders of modern plastic surgery.He invented his own method, which allows you to increase or decrease the small nose too big nose.J. F. Dieffenbach also held a full reconstruction of the nose with the restoration of all the functions and giving it a normal appearance.He tried to use gold plate in the reconstruction of the nasal septum.He proposed methods of operation for the reconstruction of the lips and cheeks.Interestingly, for a better engraftment skin graft J. F. Dieffenbach recommended the use of incisions and implanting the leeches on the flap, flap necrosis counting cause stagnation of blood in it.First, surgeons transplanted flap cooled and squeezed the blood out of it.Surprisingly, while not yet been known antibiotics, it is only 5% of patients died from infection.
Johan Friedrich Dieffenbach (1792 - 1847) (A) and the use of medicinal leeches on the movement of buccal flap (B).Observation VN Berezina and KP Pshenisnova
J. F. Dieffenbacli It suggested that the plastic surgeon has to work as a sculptor.We can assume that he was a precursor of scientific ideas kruglostebelchatogo flap Filatov.J. F. Dieffenbach sewed the edges of skin mites on the upper limbs, after which the flap pierced in different directions and squeezed plates.Thus, it is directly on the upper limb created by the nose shape, which was later transplanted to the face.
Along with J. G. Dieffenbach, the greatest success achieved Bernard Rudolph Konrad von Langenbeck (1776 - 1851), who performed the surgery for cleft palate, and offered to take a skin flap with the periosteum (1859).When resection of the upper jaw leaving the periosteum, he found that after a while there is a bone regeneration.Using the flap with the periosteum also created the basis for a dense nose.B. Langenbeck cut out for the wings and to the partition flap from her forehead with the three blades on the ends to double also posted on the forehead flap in an oblique direction.
idea to take advantage of a bone plate to form a support for a skin graft also belongs V. Langenbeck , but was carried out by Franz Konig in 1886.The operation was applied in much sunken nose.
From French famous A. A. Velpeau and S. Nelaton.In 1844, the Algerian surgeon G. Mirault.Operations using tricks A. Nelaton (1841), described, and in 1871 added a way cheiloplasty based on the linear skin refreshment department split lip and cutting out a triangular flap rocker red border to eliminate recess but the bottom edge of the lips.