Hypocalcemia - Causes, Symptoms , treatment of hypocalcemia
Hypocalcemia occurs when the reduced level of calcium required.This is due to the fact that disrupted electrophysiological process.Hypocalcemia may be acute and chronic.A very important time to establish the cause of the disease and begin timely treatment, because due to lack of calcium systemic organs work is defective, the person feel bad and looks bad.especially important to pay attention to hypocalcaemia, which occurs in children, it is very dangerous and can lead to further pathologies.
Causes of hypocalcemia
Many factors may provoke hypocalcaemia:
1. Because of hypoparathyroidism - autoimmune, post-operative, family and idiopathic.
2. pseudohypoparathyreosis as quickly lost extracellular calcium.
3. Because hypoalbuminemia, Albright disease, which do not have enough vitamin D.
4. Due to kidney failure, in case of decrease resorption of calcium salts and phosphorus.
5. Due to the fact that the pancreas is impressed when there is inflammation in the body, start to be debugged in the zone of the calcium salt of fat necrosis.
6. In cases of hypomagnesemia.
7. If large tumors begin to metastasize, because of it being debugged calcium salt in the bones and develop hypocalcaemia.
8. When toxic shock syndrome.
9. In cases of bone disease.
10. Due to some of the critical states of the organism.
11. Due to receiving many drugs, due to phosphates, anticonvulsants, diuretics, some antibiotics, anti-tumor drugs, calcitonin, diphosphonates.
12. In newborns, the disease may be due to prematurity and if diabetes mother.
13. Newborns may temporarily decrease calcium levels due to the fact that they are fed cow's milk or mixtures, which include phosphorus.
Symptoms of hypocalcemia
Naibollee dangerous form of acute hypocalcemia is because it has its own peculiarities.The first symptom is - massive cytolysis.This can happen if the patient has steatosis, hemolysis, in the case of cytostatics, severe burns, traumatic shock and crush syndrome.Because of this, the calcium begins to rapidly output from the blood.Hypocalcemia quickly begins to develop, if cytolysis is observed even kidney failure.
Symptoms of hypocalcemia are very different, they lead to various complications - the appearance of arrhythmias and seizures, when the disease is difficult runs.The acute form has a lot of symptoms if it is treated in time it will be held.
clearly expressed is considered a chronic form of hypocalcemia because it develops due to rickets, hypomagnesemia, chronic renal failure, hypoparathyroidism.The main symptom is an increase in the excitability of the neuromuscular system and tetany, which is characterized by peripheral and perioral paresthesia, spasm Carpio pedal character.
Light hypocalcemia symptoms may develop into bronchial spasm, cramps and laryngospasm.
often characterized by chronic hypocalcemia neuromuscular and neurological symptoms in patients with spasms in the muscles of the hands, feet, face, larynx, can appear seizures, psychosis, the patient is constantly depressed, very irritable, he stopped breathing.
Features hypocalcemia in children
This disease often appears in children, especially young children, are malnourished and lack of calcium.In cases of accelerated growth of the child and increased physical and mental stress, symptoms of hypocalcemia pronounced.
For children is characterized by such symptoms:
1. tetany atypical nature, the child is clumsy when moving, his legs numb and poddergivaet muscles.
2. Mild muscle spasm - colic in the gall bladder, abdominal pain character, short of breath, in which it seems that the child suffocated.
3. spasm occurs often in the calf muscle claudication occurs because the child falls.
4. Increased intracranial pressure.
5. There may be a karpopedalny spasm.
For children, it is very dangerous symptoms because of they have a lot of complications.Because an urgent need to treat the disease.
Hypocalcemia after childbirth
The disease occurs in acute form, drastically reduced the level of calcium in the blood and tissues, thus there is paresis of the smooth and striated muscles, can occur throat paralysis, intestinal, tongue, stomach, in a difficult position woman fallsinto a coma.
Postpartum hypocalcaemia refers to diseases of the endocrine nature.This form of the disease is very rare.
about lack of calcium said a blood test, because often are first diganostirovat disease, but because there are already pronounced symptoms.In case of hypocalcemia necessarily need to know the reason for its occurrence.To do this, you need to fully examined and further to give blood and urine need urine and blood biochemistry.
Treatment of hypocalcemia
sure to take vitamin D and medications that contain calcium.If developed hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism, an urgent need to treat it.
If the patient has no problems with the absorption of calcium in the small intestine, with the help of drugs with calcium can be in a short time to cure the disease.In cases of severe forms of the disease may need intravenous chloride, calcium gluconate and gluceptate.To do this for a few minutes up to 200 mg administered calcium.It must be remembered that calcium may irritate the vein walls, so it is best to enter via a central venous catheter or into a large vein.Required treatment should appoint a doctor-endocrinologist after a thorough examination.
Thus, hypocalcemia diagnosed when the blood is less than 2, 2 mmol / l.The disease most often occurs due to metabolic disorders, diseases due, when a person loses calcium in urine.Symptoms may not develop immediately, because it is very important at an early stage to identify hypocalcaemia and start early treatment.