The urgency of the problems associated with the aging of the body, modern medicine is very increased.This is largely due to the demographic situation changed over the past 100 years..
For example, compared with the beginning of the twentieth century, the number of men 65 years of age has increased 7-fold, and 85-year-old - 31 times.Traditionally it is believed that the onset of aging is associated with the termination of the reproductive function.
this period among women called menopause, menopause (cessation of menstruation), and men (by analogy) - male menopause, andropause (the cessation of secretion of sex hormones).What is it and how is shown menopause in men?
Clinical manifestations - symptoms of menopause
If menopause in women studied in a fairly full, in the matter of male menopause are many unclear issues, and systemic treatment medicine was offered only in the last 10 years.The most accepted name of this period - a syndrome (set of symptoms) of testosterone deficiency (SDT).Wrong is a saying that the male menopause takes place "in the head, not in physiology."
SDT is defined as the age-related decline in the body of male hormone testosterone production, determined by biochemical assays and manifested a number of clinical signs.By the age of 80, and its content in the blood is 43% as compared to men 25 years of age.This reduction occurs gradually after 30 years (about 1 - 3% per year), and the symptoms of menopause in males 40 - 70 years of age are found in 30 - 70%.
Testosterone, whose concentration in the blood exceeds other androgenic compounds, is the main male sex hormone.90% of it is synthesized in the testes, the remaining 10% - in the adrenal glands.Effect of testosterone in the body is expressed in:
- degree of development of sexual organs, sexual attraction and sexual behavior;
- stimulation of the sexual organ function, activation of spermatogenesis, the impact on erection and ejaculation;
- formation of secondary sexual characteristics (type of body hair, deepening of voice, distribution of subcutaneous fat, the formation of the skeleton of male type);
- build muscle mass and bone density;
- intensify exchange protsessov- fat, carbohydrate, protein, mineral;
- effect on blood formation and the metabolism of cholesterol.
From this it becomes clear that the gradual reduction in the level of testosterone leads to a decrease in sexual function, slow down the metabolic processes and the appearance of certain symptoms.The main symptoms of male menopause:
- endocrine and trophic disorders
fat deposition in the breast (gynecomastia) and the abdomen, muscle weakness and skin, dry skin, hair loss, osteoporosis (bone loss, see the causes and symptoms.osteoporosis), muscle soreness, increase the content of lipoproteins in the blood (the development of atherosclerosis, see. treatment cerebral atherosclerosis) and protein, sex hormone binding, anemia of varying severity.
- vegetative-vascular disorders
blood pressure instability with a penchant for hypertensive crisis, cardiac arrhythmia, aching pain in the heart, a sense of lack of air, "tides" of heat to the head, face and hands, sudden sweating and reddening of the skin, neck and upper chest, dizziness, and constipation.
mood instability with a tendency to depression, memory loss and difficulty concentrating and thinking, loss of interest and decreased ability to work, sleep disorders, unmotivated fear and anxiety, apathy, irritability, low self-esteem.
- disorders urogenital
decreased sexual desire and sensitivity in the genital area, the decrease of the testicles, decreased motility and number of spermatozoa with normal structure, urination disorders (increased frequency, nocturnal urgency, urinary incontinence), benign prostatic hyperplasia (by 60 years60%).
relationship systems in the body
menopause is a natural physiological aging stage, during which there is an age reorganization of the whole organism.Initially, the young people in the blood level of testosterone is different, depending on the individual characteristics of diseases, such as diet and lifestyle, etc.
the presence of aggravating factors on the 10 testosterone -.. 15% lower, but age the pace of its decline are the same.By reducing the hormone in the blood receiving signals in regulating brain structures (hypothalamus and pituitary), in response to which they produce an increased amount of luteinizing hormone that stimulates testosterone production by the testes.
age, self-regulation and testicular sensitivity to stimulating hormones decrease.Since testosterone decline is quite slow and smooth, many men do not experience any subjective sensations in this regard.In certain cases the reduction of testosterone is not smoothly and quickly than necessary, which leads to the corresponding symptoms.
When menopause in men of the same age, the severity of symptoms varies.It is fully correlated with the magnitude and speed of reduction of testosterone.The abundance and variety of symptoms - is not just a harmless manifestation process.It shows the full involvement and interdependence of all systems and organs.
Reduced sex hormones leads to changes in the functions of the cerebral cortex, manifested in the psycho-emotional sphere, to violations of the regulatory function of the central nervous system, to the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, to hypertension, heart failure and other disorders.
Changes the function of the digestive tract, endocrine glands (pancreas, thyroid, parathyroid) that often manifests with thyrotoxicosis, the development of bone osteoporosis, diabetes.Reduced and the immune status of the organism.
But at the same time is the presence of chronic diseases contribute to earlier onset and more rapid development of menopause and aging.
example, the Polish experts in Wroclaw Medical University conducted a study and found that the symptoms of androgen deficiency occur 4 times more often in men with heart failure and symptoms of male menopause have expressed much stronger.
on the development of its influence not only many chronic diseases, especially myocardial infarction, hypertension, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, liver disease, but also:
- poor nutrition and alimentary obesity;
- intoxication on "hazardous" industries, as well as chronic nicotine, drug and alcohol intoxication, ionizing radiation;
- physical inactivity;
- unfavorable ecological environment (air, food, water).
- frequent stressful conditions and chronic neuro-psychological fatigue, depression;
- benign and malignant prostate disease, injury, and inflammation of the testicles and prostate;
- receiving TB, glucocorticoid and anabolic, anti-epileptic and anti-sclerotic agents, antidepressants and others.
Diagnosis and treatment of male menopause
If you have symptoms of menopause in men treatment is carried out only after the differential diagnosis with other diseases.It is based on a survey and examination of the patient, on the semen analysis and clinical analyzes, establishing hormonal blood profile (total and free testosterone, luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, estradiol), on pelvic ultrasound, computed cranial tomography, on the identification of related chronic diseases.
One of the main analysis - the study of the content of testosterone in the blood plasma, which is carried out on an empty stomach in the morning.Normally, the lower limit of total testosterone of 12 nmol / l, free - 250 pmol / L.These tests shall be repeated to evaluate the dynamic changes.
principles of treatment with andropause consider multifactorial disorders and concluded a comprehensive approach.This approach includes:
- derivatives of testosterone replacement therapy.These drugs are in menopause in men are appointed with a decrease in total testosterone levels below 8 nmol / l, free - less than 180 pmol / L.In rare cases, they are administered in the absence of significant decrease of testosterone, since it can be reduced sensitivity to peripheral receptors.
- Drugs that stimulate the synthesis of sex hormones own.
- Sedatives and antidepressants.
- correction of erectile dysfunction.
- treatment related or arising in connection with the climax of disease and functional disorders.
- correction power, vitamin therapy and physical therapy.
basic preparations of testosterone in male menopause:
- capsules - Andriol;
- injection - Sustanon (a mixture of 4 testosterone esters), Omnadren, Sustaretard, Testosterone propionate, Tetrasteron etc .;
- transdermal (in a transdermal patch with androgens), dihydrotestosterone, applied to the skin as a gel.
Folk remedies in the treatment of male menopause
In the absence of allergy to medicinal plants can be used to treat the following charges, which can drink 1 -2 months.
- Fruits of caraway, fennel, valerian root, grass Leonurus - 1 tablespoon l.collection (in equal proportions of each plant), pour 1 tbsp.boiling water, then drain.Drink half a cup 3 p / day.
- 2 parts chamomile, 3 parts peppermint and valerian root, part 4 watch trifoliate leaf, the infusion qualify as the previous one, take half a cup at night and in the morning.
- Motherwort herb, lemon balm leaves, flowers of hawthorn, herb mistletoe - 2 parts and 1 part of the bark of buckthorn and viburnum.Infusion also prepare and adopt as the previous ones.Use
- possible and such fees: Elecampane rhizome, marjoram, series, woodruff, chamomile flowers and calendula, motherwort, flax seeds, fennel fruit.
- Calendula flowers, herbs veronica, oregano, meadowsweet.
- herbs peppermint, sage, striped, hawthorn leaves, shoots angelica and rosemary.
old age is inevitable.Every person interested in not only prolong life, but the maximum maintain their ability to work, physical, sexual, intellectual and creative activity.Climax treat it is necessary and possible.The effectiveness of treatment is largely connected with timely treatment to the skilled artisan.