Electrophoresis - applies to physiotherapy and more other methods practiced in different diseases in adults and children.During the procedure on the human body affect the electrical impulses (direct current), generated by a special machine and has a therapeutic effect on the general and local levels.Simultaneously, the administration of drugs through the skin or mucous membranes.
leading physiotherapy method would not have been possible without the continuous current generator, which was created by a physicist from Italy A. Volta in the 19th century.
first elektroomose talk about, which is a movement of fluids through the capillaries under the influence of an electric field, took place back in 1809 was then a scientist from Germany Ferdinand flight for the first time mentioned electrophoresis.However, the mass distribution of his research do not receive.
In 1926, Arne Tiselius, Swedish biochemist, the first tube is needed for the procedure described.The first device for electroprocedures was invented in 1936 - previously proposed tube transformed into more efficient narrow cell, and later replaced by a section of glass.Years of research conducted on horse serum, allowed to reveal the mechanism of action of electrophoresis: molecules having an electric charge under the influence of electric current in the liquid medium are moved in opposite charged electrode area.
electrophoresis procedure performed with the use of different devices, but the most famous is the "Stream", which for over 50 years is used in physiotherapy.The structure of the apparatus simple: holes for electrodes having marked + and - buttons for timing control procedure and current.
Washer new model equipped with a digital display and a display ( "Elfor", "Prof. Elfor" and others.)
overall positive effect of the procedure on the body
- Reducing the severity of the inflammatory process;
- eliminate edema;
- reduce pain;
- Stimulation of substances with biological activity;
- Muscle relaxation with the elimination of the raised tone;
- calming effect on the central nervous system;
- Improve blood microcirculation;
- acceleration of tissue regeneration;
- activation of protective forces.
mechanism of therapeutic action
electric current leads to the fact that the drug is converted into ions having an electric charge, which penetrate the skin.It is in the skin is the main part of the drug, just a smaller part through the lymph and blood is transported throughout the body.
ions with different charges in different ways effect on the body.For example, negatively charged ions have:
- secretory effects, ieaffect the production of substances with biological activity and their ingress into the bloodstream;
- relaxing action on smooth muscle tissue;
- vasodilatory effect;
- normalizing effect on the metabolism.
ions with a positive charge have anti-edema, anti-inflammatory, sedative and analgesic effect.
skin areas involved in the transportation of drugs:
- ducts sweating and sebaceous glands;
- intracellular domain;
- hair follicles.
eletroforeza Efficiency depends on the completeness of absorption of the drug, which is influenced by the following factors:
- age of the person;
- the power supply current;
- properties of a solvent in which is dissolved drug;
- concentration and dose;
- ion size and charge;
- place setting electrodes;
- duration of the procedure;
- individual characteristics of the organism, such as tolerance and susceptibility of the procedure.
electrophoresis procedure is carried out in the physiotherapy room, a medical worker.There are devices for home use, each of which is designed instruction that must be strictly observed.
Classic percutaneous method.Nurse examines areas of the body, which will be delivered by the electrodes - the skin needs to be healthy, with no moles, lesions and inflammatory elements.In a gasket, which is a sterile gauze is applied to a prepared main drug, a second, similar, applied to another drug, often 2% aminophylline, which improves blood circulation, relaxes the smooth muscles and has a light anesthetic effect.The first strip is connected to the positive, and the second - to minus.
After preparing the pad is placed on the skin, it is attached to the electrodes and fixed load or elastic bandages, and then include the device.
strength of the current and the procedure selected individually.Nurse gradually add the current in the procedure, and asks how the patient feels.Normal sensation - a tingling sensation at the site of electrode attachment.But the burning, itching and pain are a signal for an immediate cessation of the procedure.
Average procedure time - 10-15 minutes.Shorter duration of different treatments for small children.Duration of the course - 10-20 procedures that are carried out every day or every other day.
Other ways electrophoresis
- Vannochkovy. medicament and the solution is poured into a bath with integrated electrodes.After preparing the patient into a deep bath the affected part of the body.
- Cavernous. solution with the drug is injected into the cavity (vagina, rectum) and one of the electrodes is applied in the same cavity.A second electrode attached to the skin.Apply at diseases of the colon and pelvic organs.
- Interstitial. drug administered by conventional means, for example, orally or intravenously, and the projection electrodes applied to the affected organ.Especially effective is the introduction of pathologies of the respiratory system (bronchitis, tracheitis).
advantages and disadvantages of the introduction of drugs by electrophoresis
- introduction is not accompanied by pain;
- low concentration of the drug in a solution (10%), which is sufficiently high to provide a therapeutic effect;
- introduction of the drug directly in the inflammation;
- minimum of side effects and allergic reactions;
- prolonged therapeutic effect of treatment (20 days);
- Minuetsya path classic drugs through the gastrointestinal tract when taken orally, and therefore increases the bioavailability of drugs.
- Not all drugs can be administered by electrophoresis;
- The procedure has a number of strict contraindications.
Drugs used in electrophoresis
Depending on the drug charge is introduced through the positive or negative pole.During the procedure is permissible to use only those drugs that penetrate the skin.Each drug has its indications and has a certain therapeutic effect.Consider the main drugs used in electrophoresis:
|Drug Name||Indications||therapeutic effect|
drugs administered through the positive pole
|Atropine|| ||reduces the secretion of glands and reduces the tone of smooth muscle tissue.It eliminates pain.|
electrophoresis with calcium chloride is indicated for bleeding disorders.
|antiallergic, hemostatics and anti-inflammatory effect.Restores calcium deficiency.|
|Eufillin|| Electrophoresis aminophylline indicated for: ||Decrease spasm of smooth muscles, lowering blood pressure, improving blood circulation and the elimination of bronchospasm.Eliminating pain.|
|Vitamin B1|| ||anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-allergic effect.Normalization of metabolism and work of these organs and systems.|
|Karipazim|| ||softening of the cartilage of the intervertebral discs.Scarring of damaged collagen fibers and restore their elasticity.Anti-inflammatory effect.|
|diphenhydramine|| ||soothing, hypnotic, analgesic and anti-allergic effect.Relaxation of smooth muscles.|
|Lidaza|| Lydasum Electrophoresis is carried out at: ||splitting of hyaluronic acid, which is involved in the formation of scars.Reducing the swelling of tissues and slowing the mechanism of formation of contractures.|
|Magnesium|| ||normalization of heart rate, nervous system and the musculoskeletal system.|
|Shilajit|| ||more than 80 biologically active substances have a complex effect on the body, including regenerating, anti-inflammatory and others.|
|papaverine||States, which are accompanied by cramps (spasms of the urinary tract, bronchospasm, etc.).||Removing muscle spasm, the tone of the smooth muscle tissue of the internal organs.Vasodilator effect.Lowering blood pressure.|
|Aloe|| ||Accelerate tissue regeneration processes.Stimulation of the immune system at the local level.Pronounced anti-inflammatory effect.|
|Novocaine||Pain that accompanies the disease.||local analgesic effect.|
drugs administered through the negative pole
|Iodine|| ||anti-inflammatory effect.Inhibition of growth of pathogenic bacteria.Lowering cholesterol levels.|
|Ampicillin|| ||bactericidal effect on a wide range of infectious agents.|
|Niacin|| ||vasodilator effect.Improved circulation.Reducing blood cholesterol levels.|
|Streptocide|| ||Inhibition of growth of pathogenic flora.|
|Heparin|| ||blood thinners.The anti-inflammatory and anti-edema effect.Improving microcirculation.|
|gumizol|| ||Expressed adaptogenic effect.Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.Increased non-specific resistance of the organism.|
The following drugs may be administered as an anode and a cathode):
- trypsin and others.
Indications for electrophoresis
easier to list contraindications to treatment, because the procedure is indicated for most common diseases of almost all organs and systems.However, the lack of mass application of available procedures and interest of patients due to several factors:
- not always doctors offer patients this method of adjuvant therapy;
- because the procedure is performed in the physiotherapy room, the treatment is burdensome for some patients;
- not all people trust such procedures, and treat them with caution.
Indications for the procedure in infants up to 1 year:
- hyper- or hypotonic muscle;
- neurological disorders minor severity;
- diseases of the musculoskeletal system (including dysplasia and immaturity of the hip joint);
- ENT diseases.
Contraindications to electrophoresis - absolute and relative
As with any other physiotherapy for electrophoretic characteristic indications and contraindications.Contraindications are divided into absolute, in which the procedure is forbidden, and the relative under which a decision on the possibility of physiotherapy takes a doctor.
Electrophoresis is not carried out in the acute stage of the disease or exacerbation of chronic conditions - it is an absolute contraindication for all patients.