Respiratory diseases in children rarely occur in isolation.Usually, they combine the loss of several anatomic areas.It is no exception, and inflammation of the trachea - tracheitis.Most often it is accompanied by laryngitis, can occur in conjunction with rhinitis, pharyngitis and bronchitis.
Tracheitis in children is quite common, because the cough - one of the most frequent complaints, with which parents turn to the pediatrician.
The disease is more likely to occur in October and April, the season of respiratory infections.Infectious tracheitis susceptible children of all ages.Especially from 6 months to 3 years.The reason for this is the weak local immunity and lack of previous contact with pathogens.
tracheitis tracheitis sick children for several reasons:
In 90% of cases, the trachea become inflamed due to a virus attack.Here are the most common pathogens that are capable of adhesion (adhesion) to the tracheal mucosa:
- respiratory syncytial virus;
- bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae;
- Haemophilus influenzae;
also symptoms of tracheitis can proceed with the initial manifestations of diseases such as whooping cough, parakoklyush, psittacosis.
various noninfectious stimuli
that are in the air, affect the mucous membrane, causing its swelling and cough reflex.
- inhalation of cigarette smoke (passive smoking);
- living near industrial areas that pollute the air;
- large exhaust gas concentration accommodation near major highways;
- cool and dry air.
incidence tracheitis may become more frequent with reduced local immunity of chronic lung diseases, allergic diseases.
symptoms of tracheitis in children
Most often inflammation of the trachea in children occurs in an acute form.Chronic for their rarity.
acute form occurs after a short period of malaise, the emergence of the common cold, pain when swallowing.Perhaps raising body temperature.Clinical manifestations of tracheitis largely depend on the causative agent.Since the flu symptoms of tracheitis come to the fore.Worried Sore, dry cough, severe intoxication, fever, body aches.
When the trachea caused by parainfluenza, not without symptoms of laryngitis:
- barking cough.
Bacterial tracheitis tend to be delayed, may be the result of untreated SARS.
- Initially cough tracheitis with dry, unproductive.Sputum or small, or it is hard to separate.Viral sputum always bright and clear.Bacterial purulent sputum, yellow or yellow-green.For influenza it may appear in the blood veins.
- Children are coughing attacks, especially when cold air is inhaled, laughed at, cry, frightened.Cough becomes more frequent at night, when the child is lying.In the morning, the accumulated phlegm gives it a moist character.
- Older children may complain of sore throat, a feeling of rawness in the sternum.
- temperature in children can stay in the low-grade level (no more than 38 ° C) and rise to high numbers.Sharper and brighter react to infection young children.
Features tracheitis in children of different ages
- infants and children up to 5-6 months distinguishes incomplete cough reflex due to the immaturity of certain brain structures.Therefore, they have cough symptoms may be absent or be combined with regurgitation or vomiting.In addition, these crumbs can produce heat, be lethargic and moody due to intoxication.
- Preschoolers unproductive cough.Their muscles are not yet sufficiently developed for a full expectoration of sputum.So they suffer with frequent bouts of dry cough, especially at night.
- Pupils , on the contrary, predominates hypersecretion, so quickly cough becomes wet, with lots of mucus.
- Children older - the temperature can not be high, often low-grade.
tracheitis how to define?
Diagnosis is made after ascertaining the complaints and inspection.When listening to the respiratory organs, the doctor notes the hard breathing, the appearance of wheezes.After coughing, they may disappear or change its location.Changes in the blood count (leukocytosis, increased ESR shift formula to the left, the predominance of lymphocytes, or neutrophils) will talk about the presence of inflammation, as well as a viral or bacterial infection.X-ray examination is not usually required.
fact that the disease is localized to the trachea, it will help identify some of the features of this disease.Since the main feature - a cough, you need to differentiate tracheal inflammation with laryngitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia.
difference from laryngitis
Voice during normal tracheitis, not lost, not wheezing.Cough dry, but not barking.Gradually transformed into the wet.Laryngitis does not allow changes in auscultation.Lots of hard breathing.However, laryngitis can turn into laryngotracheitis.
difference from pharyngitis
When inflammation of the pharynx a child hurts a sore throat and dry cough.Coughing is not converted into the wet, if there is no concomitant rhinitis.Sputum not.The cough can be mitigated by gargling or lozenges.
differs from bronchitis
Bronchitis is more severe, with intoxication, dry and wet wheezing.Cough anguished, always with phlegm.In young may be complicated by bronchospasm, which does not happen when tracheitis.In bronchitis there are changes on the radiograph.
difference from pneumonia
Classic for pneumonia doctor easily distinguished from tracheitis.But there are oligosymptomatic pneumonia, with a low temperature, for example, mycoplasma pneumonia, when it should be differentiated from a prolonged cough with tracheitis.
more nonspecific acute tracheitis, it should be differentiated from:
Pertussis Cough long passes.Bouts of coughing accompanied by whistling breath (whooping) and separating the glassy phlegm in the end.Severe intoxication.
prolonged dry cough, cough.Child pale, lose weight.Long time disturbs low-grade fever.
Coughing occurs abruptly after a game with fine details.The child is restless, there is cyanosis of the lips, breathing is difficult, especially breath.Possible asphyxia.
Treatment of tracheitis in children
Treatment of acute viral tracheitis, uncomplicated infections and joining classically flowing quite possible to cure themselves, turning to the doctor only for him to listen to the child, named tests and check for complications threats.
seek medical attention immediately in the following cases:
- The child has labored breathing, with shortness of breath.He prefers to sit rather than lie, so it is easier to breathe.This respiratory failure.
- Heat knocked antipyretic, rising faster than 3 hours.After several episodes of hyperthermia need inspection pediatrician.
- During coughing child "whistles".This is a sign that the infection has fallen to the level of the bronchi, which responded spasm.
- If a child is weak, lethargic, very unwell.
- If you unsuccessfully treat tracheitis for 2-3 weeks.
What is prescribed by a doctor?
Mucolytics if the 3-4 days after onset of the disease cough became productive.The child is difficult to produce sputum due to its high viscosity.Assign Fluimucil, Mukobene, ACC, Flyuditek, Ambroxol and Bromhexine.Due to the fact that the muscles of the chest of the child is still undeveloped and the baby can not cough up sputum, and drugs make it liquid, mucolytics are not recommended for children under 2 years.
- Cold preparations
appointed rarely, only in the early days of the disease, when the cough is strong, exhausting.The children used non-narcotic agents Sinekod, Glauvent, Libeksin, Bronholitin, Tussin Plus (see. Antitussives).
- enveloping means
reduce cough reflex challenge.They create a protective layer on the oropharynx, often used in a small amount.It lozenges and syrups, fees, containing extracts of eucalyptus, licorice, wild cherry, black locust.
mainly vegetable, used for quick evacuation of sputum.Assign them when coughing rare, unproductive and low intensity.It syrups, drops and tablets cough with extracts of marshmallow, anise, nard, ipecac, psyllium, licorice, thyme.Sell them under the trade names Gerbion, Linkus, Mukaltin, Dr. Mom, Pertussin, Gedeliks, Bronchipret (see. Expectorants).However, with care administered to infants because of possible increased phlegm, vomiting and call a potential asphyxiation.It relates to preparations of ipecac.Anise, oregano and licorice have a weak laxative effect.It is better to choose the means by marshmallow root, anise drops.
Antipyretics children are shown at a temperature above 38, 5 ° C, for children up to 3 months, as well as lung and heart disease.
To reduce mucosal edema, inflammation, cough severity, appoint Erespal, Siresp.Assigned prolonged cough syrup, and 14 s after the tablets.
Some doctors like to prescribe drugs that stimulate the production of interferon, affecting the immune system.It Viferon, TSikloferon, Influcid, Oktsillokoktsinum.In terms of evidence-based medicine are effective only against influenza antivirals, Tamiflu, Oseltamivir.If the cause tracheitis - flu, they will help.Otherwise it is a waste of money and the risk of autoimmune processes in the body.
Antibiotics for tracheitis assigned only in case of bacterial etiology.they are not needed in viral diseases.If your child has purulent sputum, it can be sent for culture and sensitivity to antibiotics to find out.Sometimes they are administered empirically based on clinical disease.Assign protected amoxicillin (Augmentin, Amoxiclav), cephalosporins (Zinnat, Tsefotakim, Tseftriakon).When chlamydial or mycoplasmal tracheitis effective macrolides (Macropen, Fromilid, Sumamed).
tracheitis How to treat the child at home?
- Provide moist air, drinking plenty of fluids.If there is no heat, even quietly to play.Caring for a toddler also comprises feeding a light food, rich in vitamins.Healthy dairy products.
- children who find it difficult to cough, can be helped by postural massage.The child lies on a pillow or on your knees adult stomach.After stroking, hand pumps are manufactured in the form of tapping from the bottom up, not touching the spine.Once children become easier to cough up phlegm.Expectorant can drink before the procedure (30 minutes).Without
- temperature can hover legs in the water (not above 45 ° C) or put back mustard.
- can make your child inhales.But it should not be scalding steam, so can provoke a burn or laryngospasm.Apply herbal teas with licorice, sage, nursing fees.The main thing - to moisten the mucous and phlegm display.
tracheitis How long is the child?
Since the beginning of sickness before the classic symptoms takes 2-3 days.On average, during the acute illness lasting at least 2 weeks.A week can last residual cough.
child in the clinic often diagnosed tracheitis.What could be its cause?
To start to define what is considered to be frequent cases of SARS more than 6 episodes per year in children under 3 years old, and more than 5 times a year in children after 3 years.Frequent tracheitis may occur due to an increased number of contacts with potential carriers of infection, while reducing the immune response because of its immaturity.Also frequently ill children should be deleted immunodeficiency, malformations of upper respiratory tract and respiratory system, cystic fibrosis.