primary analysis, which assigns a person of any doctor to whom he addresses with complaints - a general analysis of capillary blood.Popularly called the blood "of the finger," and doctors call hemogram.It turns out, it shows the level of inflammation, bacterial or viral in nature, it is through the hemoglobin level indicates the integrity of the delivery system to the tissues of oxygen.
But it is important in this laboratory test, and more: it allows you to carry out an initial diagnosis (and then need further examination), diseases of the blood system - insidious and life-threatening pathologies that may have minimal or no symptoms masquerade as other diseases.More details about them talk a little lower.
excursion into the theory
only seems to mean blood homogeneous liquid of different shades of red.However, microscopy is that it - the suspension, that is liquid, wherein the slurry is floating cells.The last name is formed elements because not all of them - the cells in the biological sense of the word, that is, have a nucleus, organelles and the mitochondria.The function of the different elements of form:
- leukocytes - this immunity cells.They are divided into 2 groups: neutrophil and lymphocyte.First kill bacteria, swallowing and "digesting" them.It increases the number of neutrophils in bacterial diseases.Lymphocytes - cells that when dealing with infection begin producing antibodies - immunoglobulins.They fight with acute infection, and then modified and remain in the body as the information transferred pathology.When the same microbe gets back to the person, the response to it has much faster.
- Erythrocytes - is discoid elements that do not contain any core or more laid cell organelles.Their task - to bring the cells of oxygen, give it away, and instead pick up carbon dioxide and bring the latter up to the lungs, where the latter again "exchanged" with oxygen.
- Platelets - cells that cover a damaged vessel wall and forming a clot.They work closely with the interior of the capillary membranes cells artery or vein (epithelial cells cause them with chemicals), and clotting protein, dissolved in plasma.
liquid component of blood called plasma.It dissolved proteins, antibodies, electrolytes and trace elements, cholesterol, vitamins, carbohydrates and lipids.They get here and transferred to hormones, enzymes, gases (including nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide), signaling molecules, growth factors and many other substances.
Blood as the integrity of the system itself
blood is cloth.It has specific antibodies - proteins Rh factor, system proteins A, B and zero (it is based on this classification, 4 blood groups considered in our countries major), proteins huge amounts of other blood groups.These substances are linked with surface antigens of red blood cells if the plasma floats antibody to protein A, then this protein is not on the red blood bodies, otherwise the past will dissolve, and the person can not live.
Therefore, blood transfusion - the same responsible procedure, as well as organ transplantation: it saves lives, but first need to carefully check the compatibility of tissues (ie, blood) donor and the person who shows the transfusion that has not occurred any mass decay of red blood cells, or overexcitementimmune system.
on blood leukocytes is flying a large number of receptor - gauges that scan blood on the objectivity of any foreign agent.When scientists discovered it, they banned transfuse whole blood.After all, the blood donor leukocytes are bound to be his, and the probability of coincidence of their "on all counts" receptor structure of the recipient receptors tends to zero (so very many of them, even blood relatives do not always have their complete similarity).A mismatch is fraught with various reactions, in which the developing lesions of many organs.
Therefore, the world is now produced separately transfusion of red blood cells, plasma and platelets separately separately.For each of these manipulations have their own strict medical indications.
blood - tissue that supports its integrity.It dissolved coagulation proteins (most of them are produced in the liver) that interact with the "platelets" - platelets.If the damage of the vessel from the outside or inside of the platelet "glues the gap", and then gives a signal of distress hemostasis system (ie clotting), and at this point a dense clot, which does not allow bleeding.Activated hemostasis not only for injuries but also inflammatory diseases of any organ.To all the blood is not curled, it contains proteins, antagonists, anticoagulant system.Both of them normal are in equilibrium, but if it is upset, developing state called "coagulopathy".Signs of blood disorders are fundamentally different from pathologies associated with changes in the quantity or quality of formed blood elements.
Blood does not appear "out of nowhere".Her shaped elements are formed in the bone marrow, where each of the germ - erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelet - has its own "niche" where everyone goes their stages of development from the undifferentiated, common to all stem cell blasts through the stage before the development of the species.
In the process of its development, red blood cell loses its nucleus and organelles megakaryoblasts divides its nucleus and cytoplasm into many small platelets.White blood cells also undergo a significant differentiation of its nucleus and cytoplasm, learn to distinguish their cells from strangers for "mustache" antigens exhibited by each cell on its surface.There
education and training of white blood cells in the central organ immunogenesis - thymus.Learn, they work in the lymph nodes and specific clusters of lymphocytic tissue located in the cavities of the body.Thus, lymphoid tissue located in the appendix, which is located at the interface of the small intestine to the colon and in the pharynx, where communication with the external environment nose and throat pass into the internal environment.There are other areas of work lymphocytes, which play the role of "checkpoints".
After the "lifetime" or of his death, the blood cells are utilized spleen.All these
: bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes and lymphoid tissue sections, as well as the spleen and some areas of the kidneys (in which the factor is formed, which gives the command to form bone marrow erythrocytes) - is the blood system.Changing the parameters of their functioning as a result of:
- toxic or tumoral pathologies
leads to the development of a blood disease in children or adults.
All the above was an abundance of information so as to form the concept of the following: pathology may be affected any blood cell link - red blood cells, platelets or leukocytes.Disease can lead to disruption of cell structure, because of which the quality suffers, or to change its quantity.Separately it is necessary for clotting.
Depending on the cause, blood diseases are divided into the following main groups:
- Hereditary - for example, erythremia, thalassemia major, sickle-cell anemia, hemophilia.
- acquired - haemorrhagic anemia, agranulocytosis, DIC, including autoimmune and tumor pathology.
- Infectious - malaria, infectious mononucleosis.
Total items of blood diseases - nearly 100. In order to facilitate their perception, consider the germ of the disease each separately.
As already mentioned, the red blood cells - it is not quite full-fledged cells, which must carry oxygen to organs and tissues, and from them - carbon dioxide.Both gases are a chemical bond with hemoglobin, more precisely, with its non-protein part - heme.In order to ensure adequate transport of these gases, it is necessary to comply with such conditions:
- to erythrocytes was a sufficient amount, but not exceeding the rate of (a large number of too bad for health);
- membrane must be strong enough to erythrocyte not burst when leaving the vessel with changing pH;
- connection with heme must be of sufficient strength to oxygen is conveyed to their destination at the same time and such that he was able to detach tissue.
Violation of the first two conditions causes blood diseases that hematologists treat.Change the third situation usually arises in cases of poisoning, hematological disorders are not considered to be treated in toxicology.
Changing the number of red blood cells
may be an increase in the number of red cells (polycythemia) or decrease (anemia).The second type of pathology occurs more frequently.
cause anemia three main reasons:
This is called a hemorrhagic anemia happens:
- acute when it was lost once a fairly large amount of blood - more than 1/10 of its total;
- chronic, blood is lost often, but little by little (heavy menstruation, frequent nosebleeds, gastrointestinal bleeding ulcer).
poor quality of the erythrocyte membrane, which is why it quickly disintegrates
It - hemolytic anemia, and multi - great variety.Most of them are genetic in nature.It:
- different types of thalassemia;
- sickle cell anemia;
- persistence of fetal (that is, in the fetus) hemoglobin, the properties of which differ from a similar structure in adults;
- hereditary disorders form red blood cells, in which the quality suffers their membranes (spherocytosis, elliptotsitoz, acanthocytosis);
- weakness of the membrane, which developed as a result of the pathology of enzymes that are involved in the synthesis of the erythrocyte membrane.
there and acquired anemia when the red blood cell can decay due to:
- intestinal infection or SARS (hemolytic uremic syndrome);
- long walk;
- blood transfusion on a large scale, from different donors;
- autoimmune pathology of blood;
- disease of medium and small vessels;
- destruction of red blood cells by the parasite - malaria;
- poisoning hemolytic poison;
- enlarged spleen.
Impaired synthesis of red blood cells and / or hemoglobin
Such anemias allocate 5 types.
first caused by a deficiency in the blood of substances of which forms an integral part of hemoglobin or red blood cell (deficient anemia):
- caused by a lack of folic acid;
- B-12 deficiency;
- occurs in scurvy;
- due to a lack of protein in the diet (kwashiorkor);
- associated with deficiency of essential for the synthesis of globin (as part of hemoglobin) of amino acids;
- caused by lack of trace elements - copper, molybdenum, zinc - which are part of a red blood cell.
second - violation of the bone marrow work, which is not able to give rise to the normal number of red blood cells (aplastic anemia).There are several different types: partial, drug, Diamond, Fanconi.
Third - arising from chronic pathologies of internal organs (such blood diseases are more common in adults).Thus, anemia may be the only sign of cancer or chronic kidney disease.
Fourth - with red blood cells when everything is in order, but disturbed hemoglobin formation process.This is - the disease called "porphyria".
There are also anemias caused no loss, and the spending power of hemoglobin.It is isolated anemia during pregnancy, lactation and the anemia that occurs in athletes.
symptoms of anemia Anemia of any origin is characterized by such symptoms:
- pale skin (children visible white ears);
- pale pink lips and gums;
- deterioration in performance and memory;
- accelerated heartbeat;
- may desire to use non-edible things;
- for B12 is folievodefitstnoy-deficiency anemia is characterized by a bright pink tongue.
Additional symptoms arise only when hemolytic anemia - a yellowing of the sclera or skin.In the decay of a large number of red blood cells may darken urine.
increase in the number of red blood cells Erythrocyte
germ tumors are rarely affected.Increasing the level of red blood cells it is usually combined with increased production and other blood cells, and this name - polycythemia.Separate increase the level of red blood cells may be at eritremii Vakeza and disease with a benign course.
Symptoms of this disease - it is:
- hot flashes to the face and body;
- body starts to itch, which is enhanced after taking a warm bath or shower;
- «goose bumps" on the skin;
- redness of the face;
- sweating in the absence of fever;
- burning sensation in the fingers;
- pain in the feet.
If pathology erythrocyte germ wore mostly hereditary or due to injury, the loss of hematopoiesis most leukocyte branches is tumor character.This leukemia.They differentiate from leukemoid reaction - a strong response leukocyte germ at some stimulus, whether the infection or introduction into the body of the parasite.Leukemoid reaction takes place over several days, helping her quickly disappear elimination factor causing it.
etiology of leukemia following:
- exposure to radiation;
- genetic defects in germ;
- defeat certain viruses;
- poisoning by chemicals (mostly, it paints and varnishes).
disease develops when the immune system links do not recognize and destroy abnormal cells formed in time.And such is constantly synthesized in each organ in a small amount, in the course of his life.
There are many types of leukemia, their name depends on the fact how the germ began to proliferate and fall from the bone marrow into the blood.If pathologically The increased division suffered a lymphocytic link, the disease can be called or lymphoma, or Hodgkin's disease.They are characterized by an increase in a large number of nodes simultaneously.
Oncological diseases of the blood may be manifested by the following symptoms:
- sore throat and mouth, resembling those with acute respiratory infections, but aggravated by eating;
- feeling chills;
- bleeding gums;
- progressive bone pain severity;
- memory impairment;
Under pathological leukocytes isolated infectious diseases of the blood.It is presented only infectious mononucleosis.This pathology is caused by one of two viruses of herpes group, when there is a manifestation of indolent angina, increase of several groups of lymph nodes, small toxicity and long-term rise in temperature to the low numbers.The blood cells appear here - atypical mononuclear cells - in the field of view of more than 10%.
- thrombocytosis - an increase in platelet count.Do not have the elucidation of the causes;
- thrombocytopathy, when the number of these cells are normal, but they are inferior structure, which prevents them from functioning normally.They mostly are inherited blood disorders;
- thrombocytopenia - decrease in the number (below 300 * 109 / l) platelet counts.
thrombocytopathy with thrombocytopenia characterized by the appearance on the body clearly defined bruises for no apparent injuries.There may be spontaneous nosebleeds, and brushing your teeth without the appearance of blood from the gums is simply impossible.
coagulation clotting disorder may have a different name in view of shortage of 12-clotting factors, proteins originated.