Children and adult disability takes place in a separate series of social problems.For patients with disabilities rehabilitation becomes daily work.The process of social adaptation of the person of a disabled child, having a limited capacity, complicated and time-consuming.
This is due to shortcomings of the intellectual and physical development of the child, as well as with certain limitations in the social environment.One of the innovative techniques of rehabilitation of persons with disabilities is a hippotherapy.
hippotherapy Hippotherapy is characterized by a number of additional advantages over traditional methods of rehabilitation.Alternatively, therapeutic physical training, hippotherapy is based on the use of natural biological function of the horse - the movement, which has great social importance.Rehabilitation using hippotherapy - a complex effect on a person with a particular pathology, whereas the main recovery techniques are one-sided.
Hippotherapy provides great prospects for recovery for those with insufficient function of musculoskeletal system, helps to solve the most difficult psychological and pedagogical objectives, as well as an optimal method of integration and psycho-social rehabilitation of the disabled.
positive effects of hippotherapy on people with cerebral palsy
One of the most important factors affecting coordination riding feel the burden.When you are on a horse formed a special body fixing scheme.In the process of the body's natural deduction forward, upright leading role played by the coordination system and the activity of the muscles of the back and pelvis.The man kept the work leading hip muscles that hold the pelvis in the animal body or in the saddle.The load on leg muscles is regulated by the degree of reliance on the foot stirrups - with a strong degree of support voltage adductors decreases at low - rises.
translational animal movements change the load on the muscles of the body and legs of the rider directly involved in keeping a horse, which is a natural element of the training.Symmetrical load on all the axes that provide the same function of all groups of muscles involved in maintaining the vertical position.
There are also effects on the muscular system dealing with low-frequency vibrations emanating from a moving animal.These movements reduced the increased muscle tone and contribute to increasing the amplitude of the movements of the limbs, both upper and lower.
dosage, but the point load on the vestibular apparatus bears training elements, stimulates its natural function.Ultimately, improved static and kinetic organization of motor skills, the confidence in the movements.
behavioral effects exerted by the oscillating movements of the animal on the vestibular analyzer, manifested strengthening of impulses along pathways.This stimulation undergo deep brain structures responsible for the functional state of the motor analyzer.
Achieve significant results in the correction of motor disorders have a positive effect on the social and psychological status of the disabled:
- increases self-esteem increases the motivation to the whole process of rehabilitation
- increases the life activity.
Thus, the rehabilitation of persons with cerebral palsy using hippotherapy promotes more effective and the maximum possible recovery of disturbed functions of the movement apparatus.
Hippotherapy and its positive effect on various pathologies
Experience of hippotherapy proved a huge role in the development of this technique poses and movements.Patients gain voluntary control over their own bodies, voluntary attention increases, decreases muscle tone, trains the vestibular apparatus, develops the ability to hold the vertical body and to maintain a balance.
During the ride the horse in work involuntarily included major groups muscular system.This happens on the reflex level.When you are riding the human body begins to move along with the movement of the animal.Instinctively the human body tries to maintain a balance, thereby encouraging active work as the working and the affected muscle groups.
Under the influence of this exercise marked a huge increase in the functioning of the autonomic systems.This hippotherapy acts on the body by means of two factors: a biomechanical and psychogenic.Ratio of these mechanisms depends on the disease and the problems that must be solved rehabilitation.Thus, in therapy of neuroses, mental retardation, cerebral palsy, autism early acting factor is a leading psychogenic.When restoring post-MI patients, people with impaired posture and scoliosis, osteochondrosis leading factor is the biomechanical.
With psychological aspects of relationships is a horse:
- natural mediator in ippoterapevt rider dialogue;
- receiver and amplifier information (animal reaction to command);
- immediate response transmitter (the obedience of the horse and execute specific commands).
The use of hippotherapy for the rehabilitation of patients with heterogeneous types of mental development disorders leads to the following results:
- Removed general lethargy;
- Reduced obsessive anxiety;
- There adaptation to the real time and space;
- increases almost achieve independence.
criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of hippotherapy
criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of hippotherapy conventionally divided into two groups: medical and social.Medical criteria:
- strengthened and special training muscles.There is a simultaneous stimulation of weakened or non-working muscles and relaxation of muscle groups apparatus located in spastic condition;
- balance Strengthening .Because of the need to maintain balance throughout the sessions comes the vestibular apparatus training;
- Improved coordination and orientation in space .During a workout, the patient focuses on the playground or in the arena, there are visual and instinctive association.Develops auditory and visual-motor coordination;
- Improvement of psycho-emotional state , increase self-esteem.During training goes a feeling that a person is sick and weak.Thanks to the determination of riding a horse and control animals formed Leadership note, improves mood and a desire to live and to fight the disease.In addition, when riding is not used items accompanying the disabled in everyday life (walking stick, crutches, shaking, etc.) that brings the person to stay healthy emancipation of people in the world.
- Improved communication possibilities involved.During lessons people communicate and work together with ippoterapevtami, staff and with each other;
- Improving the quality and efficiency of the disabled socialization process by strengthening physical health, psychological balance of the alignment and stabilization of the emotional state;
- Significant integration of disabled persons in the society, to expand the horizons of their possibilities, to overcome the psychological barriers of disability;
- development of skills in the care of the horse.For people with mental retardation for animal care can develop into a profession grooms that enables independent existence in life;
- Development of cognitive sphere of activity.The need to continually focus when riding, to concentrate, to remember certain actions activates the psychic processes.
Rehabilitation using hippotherapy has no age restrictions.Contraindications to hippotherapy classes are very small.Moreover, hippotherapy allowed in complex diseases, when contraindicated, most rehabilitation techniques.
In conclusion, it should be noted that hippotherapy gives unlimited possibilities of rehabilitation to sick people, and is a unique method of rehabilitation.