Drowsiness - the feeling of lethargy, tiredness, desire to sleep, or at least to do nothing.This condition, which normally occurs as a result of severe physical or mental fatigue.
Physiological sleepiness - the brain signals that he needs a break from the flow of information that the brake system included protective regime and reduce the rate of reaction, blunts the perception of external stimuli and block the sensory organs and the cerebral cortex to the dormant mode.
signs of sleepiness is:
- reduced visual consciousness, yawning
- decrease the sensitivity of the peripheral analyzers (dullness of perception)
- slowing heart rate
- decrease in the secretion of exocrine glands and dry mucous membranes (lacrimal - sticking the eyes, salivary - dry mouth).
But there are situations or conditions that drowsiness is transformed into a pathological aberration or even a serious problem in human life.
So why always want to sleep?
main reasons for constant sleepiness:
- fatigue both physical and mental
- Oxygen starvation of the brain cortex
- Strengthening inhibitory responses in the central nervous system and the predominance of excitation (including on the background of drugs or toxic substances)
- pathology of the brain to sleep centers lesions
- head injuries
- endocrine pathology
- diseases of internal organs, leading to the accumulation of substances in the blood, inhibiting the activity of the cerebral cortex
When a person is forced to long sleep, hisCNS includes the braking force mode.Even in a single day:
- Overload visual (. Long zasizhivaniya at the computer, TV, etc.)
- hearing (noise in the shop, in the office, etc.)
- tactile or
pain receptors person can repeatedly run intomomentary drowsiness or so-called "trance" when his normal daily alpha rhythm is replaced bark slower beta waves typical of REM sleep (during sleep or viewing of dreams).This simple method of immersion in a trance often use hypnotists, therapists and scammers of all stripes.
Sleepiness after eating
Many feel sleepy right after lunch - it is also explained quite simply.Vascular volume exceeds the volume of blood that circulates in it.Therefore, always acting blood redistribution system of prioritization system.If the gastrointestinal tract is filled with food and hard work, most of the blood is deposited or circulated in the stomach, intestine, gall bladder, pancreas and liver.Accordingly, the brain for the period of active digestion gets less oxygen carrier and passing on savings mode, the bark starts to work is not as active as fasting.Because, in fact, why move if the stomach and so full.
banal lack of sleep
In general, a person does not sleep can not.And sleep an adult should not be less than 7-8 hours (although historical colossus like Napoleon Bonaparte, Alexander the Great or slept 4 hours, and it does not hurt to feel hearty).If a person is forcibly deprived of sleep, it will still be turned off and the dream he may even be a few seconds.Not to want to sleep during the day - sleep at least 8 hours a night.
Another option physiological sleepiness - a reaction to stress.If in the early stages of stress people are more likely to suffer from increased excitability and insomnia (on the background of adrenaline and cortisol by the adrenal glands), is under long-term stress factors the adrenals are exhausted, reduced release of hormones, and also shifted their emission peak (as cortisol, eye-catching in the 5-6 am, begins to be secreted maximum 9- 10 hours).Similar condition (fatigue) are observed in chronic adrenal insufficiency, or on the background of long-term use of glucocorticoids, as well as in rheumatic diseases.
Pregnancy In pregnant women in the first trimester on the background of hormonal changes, toxemia, and in the last trimester, when there is a natural inhibition of the cortex placental hormones may be episodes of extension of a night's sleep or sleepiness during the day - this is the norm.
Why all the time sleeping baby
It is known that infants and children up to six months most of their lives in a dream:
- newborn - if the baby is about 1-2 months, he was without any neurological problems and somatic diseases,it is characterized by a dream to spend up to 18 hours a day
- 3-4 months - 16-17 hours
- up to six months - about 15-16 hours
- to a year - how much should baby sleep up to a year, is solvedthe state of his nervous system, the nature of nutrition and digestion, the daily routine in the family, the average is 11 to 14 hours per day.
So much time the child spends in a dream for one simple reason: his nervous system at birth is underdeveloped.After complete formation of the brain, culminating in utero, simply would not allow the baby to be born in a natural way due to too large head.
Therefore being able to sleep, the child as much as possible protected from overloads their immature nervous system that has the ability to dorazvitsya in quiet mode: somewhere to correct the effects of prenatal or childbirth hypoxia somewhere to finish the formation of the myelin sheath of nerves from which the transfer rate dependsnerve impulse.
Many kids are able to even have a dream.Children wake up to six months more from the inner discomfort (hunger, intestinal colic, headache, cold, wet diapers).
Lethargy in a child may cease to be normal in case of serious illness:
- if the baby vomits, he has loose stools, prolonged absence of the chair
- he fell and hit his head, and then there was some weaknessand drowsiness, lethargy, pallor or cyanosis of the skin
- child has ceased to respond to voice, touch
- does not suck the breast or the bottle for too long (and certainly not urinating)
important to urgently call the team ambulance or carry (wear) a child inthe nearest emergency room at Children's hospital.
For children older than one year , then they cause drowsiness, going beyond the usual, almost the same as that of the baby, plus all physical illnesses and conditions that will be described below.
Pathological sleepiness is still the name of the pathological hypersomnia.This increase in sleep duration without objective need for it.If a person who used to spill over eight hours of sleep begins to be applied during the day, sleep longer in the morning or drowsy at work without objective reasons - it must bring on thoughts about the problems in his body.
Acute or chronic infectious diseases
Asthenia or depletion of physical and mental forces of the body characteristic of the transferred acute or chronic severe, especially infectious diseases.The release period of illness people with asthenia may feel the need for a longer vacation, including daily sleep.The most likely cause of such a state - the need for restoring the immune system, which helps to sleep (while he recovered T lymphocytes).There is also the visceral theory that during sleep the body is testing the function of internal organs, it is important to recovering from illness.
Close to fatigue is a condition experienced by patients with anemia (anemia, in which reduced levels of red blood cells and hemoglobin, ie worsening blood transport oxygen to organs and tissues).In this sleepy part of the program hemic cerebral hypoxia (along with lethargy, decreased work capacity, memory impairment, dizziness, and even fainting).The most commonly manifested iron deficiency anemia (with vegetarianism, bleeding, on a background of latent iron deficiency in pregnancy or malabsorption, chronic foci of inflammation).B12-deficiency anemia accompanies diseases of the stomach, resection, starvation, infection broad tapeworm.
Atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels
Another cause oxygen starvation of the brain - cerebral atherosclerosis.When overgrowth of vessels supplying the brain plaques by more than 50% appears ischemia (oxygen deprivation cortex).If it is chronic cerebrovascular accidents:
- in addition to sleepiness, patients may suffer from headaches
- hearing loss and memory
- instability when walking
- in acute disorders of blood flow occurs stroke (bleeding at rupture of the vessel or ischemicat its thrombosis).The forerunners of this threatening complications may be a violation of thinking, the noise in the head, drowsiness.
Older people have cerebral arteriosclerosis may develop relatively slowly, gradually degrading power of the cerebral cortex.That is why a large number of elderly in the daytime sleepiness becomes a must-have, and even somewhat mitigates their departure from life, gradually worsening cerebral blood flow so that depresses the respiratory and vasomotor centers of the medulla oblongata automatic.
Idiopathic hypersomnia Idiopathic hypersomnia
- independent disease, which often develops in young people.It is devoid of any other reasons, and the diagnosis is made by exclusion.Develops a tendency to daytime sleepiness.There are moments of falling asleep during relaxed wakefulness.They are not as sharp and sudden.As with narcolepsy.night sleep time is shortened.Awakening harder than normal, and this can be aggressive.In patients with this disease gradually weakens the social and family ties, they lose the skills and ability to work.
- this option hypersomnia with an increase in daytime sleep
- a restless night's sleep
- episodes of irresistible sleep at any time of the day
- with loss of consciousness, muscle weakness, episodes of apnea (breathing stops)
- patients pursues feeling nevysypaniya
- also may experience hallucinations while falling asleep and waking
This pathology is characterized by the fact that in contrast to the physiological sleep REM sleep comes at once and often slow suddenly without falling asleep.This option lifelong disease.
Increased sleepiness on the background of intoxication
Acute or chronic poisoning of the body, which is most sensitive cortex and subcortex, as well as stimulation of the reticular formation, providing inhibitory processes different drugs or toxic substances, lead to severe and prolonged drowsiness not only at night, butand in the daytime.
- Alcohol - the most popular household poison.After the stage of initiation when the intoxication of average weight (1,5-2, 5% 0 blood alcohol) usually develops sleep stage, in front of which can be severe drowsiness.
- Smoke , besides vasospasm leads to deterioration of the oxygen supply to the brain cortex, promotes permanent irritation and inflammation of the inner choroid that provokes not only the development of atherosclerotic plaques, but also potentiates the cracking of a thrombosis of the vascular bed, including brainarteries.Therefore, about 30% of smokers constant sleepiness and lack of energy - constant companions.But during the bad habit of throwing drowsiness may also disturb
- Psychotropic substances (neuroleptics, tranquillizers, antidepressants) are given by drowsiness, which becomes chronic chronic administration of drugs or addiction to them.Also, long-term use of hypnotics (especially barbiturates) and high doses of sedatives leads to drowsiness due to the activation of inhibitory processes in the CNS.
- Drugs (especially morphine) also causes the sleepy state.
CNS depression on the background of diseases of internal organs
- Chronic heart failure
heart failure in a large circle of blood circulation leads to the impoverishment of the cerebral blood flow, chronic hypoxia cortex and pronounced sleepiness during the day, the deterioration of the night sleep, difficulty falling asleep.
Encephalopathy Encephalopathy program symptomatic hypertension and hypertension - is often the culprit is not only unnecessary vocal activity, reducing criticism and inhibition of the cortex, combined with an increased need for sleep.
renal disease (glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis) accompanied by acute or chronic renal failure and the delay in the blood of nitrogenous toxins can also cause abnormally long sleep and lethargy (see. The classification of renal diseases and their symptoms).
hepatocellular liver failure in cirrhosis, liver cancer, chronic hepatitis complicates the laundering of blood products of protein metabolism (see. The symptoms of liver disease).As a result, the blood begins to contain high concentrations of substances that are toxic to the brain.Serotonin also synthesized and observed decrease of sugar in the brain tissue.Accumulating lactic and pyruvic acid, provoking swelling crust and hyperventilation, resulting in deterioration of the blood supply to the brain becomes.With an increase in poisoning drowsiness may develop into a coma.
- intoxication against infections
Intoxication in viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal infections - another reason pathological sleepiness.The most famous chronic fatigue syndrome on the background of herpes infection.Constant fatigue combined with sleepiness, decreased ability to work, weakening of the immune system.
neuroinfections background flu, herpes, rabies, tick-borne encephalitis, fungal lesions may be accompanied by headache, fever, drowsiness, lethargy, and specific neurological symptoms.
Dehydration Dehydration reduces blood volume on the background of the continuing loss of water and electrolytes with diarrhea or vomiting, and inevitably provokes weakness and drowsiness.
- bleeding, shock, ileus
massive bleeding, shock of different origin, intestinal obstruction leading to the accumulation of the main mass of blood in the abdominal cavity and the impoverishment of the cerebral blood flow, resulting in getting sleepy.
- Malignant tumors
cancer cachexia (wasting) and intoxication decay products tumors also add vigor to man (see. For analysis to determine how cancer).
Mental disorder (cyclothymia, depression) and neurological disorders can lead to drowsiness.
- Hypothyroidism - the most characteristic lesion of the endocrine glands, in which develops severe drowsiness, impoverishment of emotions and loss of interest in life - is hypothyroidism (after thyroiditis, radiation or surgical removal of the thyroid gland).Falling levels of thyroid hormone affects all kinds of exchanges, so the brain is expressed starving, and fluid buildup in the brain leads to swelling and deterioration of the convolutions of the brain integrative abilities.
- gipokortitsizm (adrenal failure) leads to a decrease in blood pressure, fatigue, drowsiness, fall in body weight, loss of appetite and stool instability.