- About bacteria
- «Weapons" bacteria
- Epidemiological aspects
- Who is at risk for infection
- Diseases caused by Pseudomonas aeruginoza
- main symptoms of Pseudomonas
- infection of upper respiratory tract
- infection of the digestive system
- urinary tract infections
- infection of the respiratory system
- skin infections and underlying soft tissues
- Other localization
- Pseudomonas infection in
- children How to recognize a Pseudomonas infection
- Treatment of Pseudomonas
- infection additional treatment
- Prevention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections
Pseudomonas aeruginosa - a particularly pathogenic bacteria that can easily get the treatment in the hospital;its transmission in the home is possible, but this happens rarely.The most common microbe "lives" in intensive care units, because they have a large amount of equipment and tools used repeatedly.Thus many antiseptics it is not sensitive, and some, for example, rivanol, uses "food."Attributed to bacteria and a "collective intelligence".
essence of the history of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the diseases it causes - not to treat yourself or to go to the hospital (because its concentration is greater in the walls of the hospital, than on the street or at home).The idea is to do everything possible to illness did not require intensive care (there are people who insist on treatment in intensive care unit).This concept includes a planned examination, appeal to the doctor if any unexplained symptoms as well - proper nutrition, sufficient activity and maintenance - without fanaticism - the purity of the skin.
bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas aeruginoza) lives in the environment.It can be found:
- on the ground;
- on plants;
- in the air;
- on subjects: wash basin, air conditioners, humidifiers, faucets, in fluids at home - in a small amount.
also trace (minimum) amounts of microbes can be found as part of the normal microflora of the skin armpits, groin creases near the nose or ear.The bacterium behaves peacefully until the local immunity of the person (pH his skin, the level of immunoglobulin A in its epidermis, the bactericidal properties of saliva content nasopharyngeal and gastric juice), as well as the overall protective properties of the body are maintained at a sufficient level.
If any of the parameters is suffering, or Pseudomonas falls in large quantities, or "delivered" in the internal environment of the body, develops an infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Its symptoms will depend on where in the body the germ was.Thus, it may be the causative agent of encephalitis, cystitis, pneumonia, or osteomyelitis.It is able to multiply in the intestines, middle ear, abscesses and wounds.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa can not live in the absence of oxygen.Because of this it is called obligate (ie mandatory) aerobe.It is a gram negative microbe that is based on the structure of its color when certain dyes.Gram-negative bacteria are more pathogens due to the structure of their cell wall.They form a little toxic products of metabolism, but in the destruction of their immune cells release intrinsic factor, previously localized to the membrane, which causes poisoning of the body and may cause shock, which is difficult to cure (develops defeat all internal organs).
pseudomonas Pseudomonas has a size of 0.5 microns.She looks like a wand, the ends of which are rounded.There are 1 or more flagella, which not only help the bacteria to move, but they are additional factors of aggression.That type of flagellar protein antigen was isolated 60 species of bacteria other than for its toxigenic properties.
bacterium grows best at 37 degrees, and continues to exist but at higher temperatures - up to 42 ° C.Environments where developed Pseudomonas aeruginosa - a meat-peptone, meat-peptone agar and nutrient agar (jelly-like substance), saturated tsetilperidiniumom chloride.So, if the seeding material taken from the patient (sputum discharge from the wound, urine, cerebrospinal fluid or blood) and placed on the environment, there will be the "point" of blue-green coloring, this suggests that the infectious agent - namely Pseudomonaspseudomonas.Next microbiologists study the properties and the type of bacteria and its sensitivity to antibiotics to your doctor, to get such a result, it has been known, the person can be treated.
Such microbiological examination - inoculation of culture media - are periodically conducted in each of the departments of the hospital, to assess the quality of the sterilization of instruments and equipment.If sowing detects Pseudomonas, conducted additional disinfection.It is much more cost-effective than treating a man with a Pseudomonas infection, so these studies, particularly in intensive care units, anaesthesiology and intensive care, really held.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces pigments:
- pyocyanin: it was he who paints the environment in the blue-green color;
- pioverdin: pigment yellow-green color, which fluoresces when subjected to the culture medium to ultraviolet light;
- piorubin - brown pigment.
bacterium resistant to many disinfectants due to the development of specific enzymes that cleave them. capable of ruining her only :
- autoclaving (steam sterilization under high pressure);
- 3% peroxide;
- 5-10% solution of chlorine bleach.
bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa "strikes" on the human body due to the fact that:
- can move using flagella;
- produces a toxin as a product of its own vital functions, that is, before his death;
- produces substances that "bursts" red blood cells, affects the liver cells, white blood cells are killed - the immune cells that are designed to deal with any infection;
- synthesizes substances that kill other bakterii- "competitors" in the place of contact;
- «stick» to surfaces and to each other, covered with the overall "biofilm" nechuvstvitelnoy to antibiotics, antiseptics and disinfectants.Since Pseudomonas colonies live on catheters, endotracheal tubes, respiratory and hemodialysis equipment;
- has enzymes that allow you to navigate on the intercellular space;
- synthesized phospholipase, which destroys the bulk of the surfactant - a substance through which light does not "stick" and can breathe;
- produces enzymes that break down proteins, so the bacteria cause the death of the tissues at the site of its accumulation in sufficient quantities.
Another feature of Pseudomonas in that it has a lot of factors that allow bacteria not collapse under the influence of antibiotics.It:
- enzymes that break down the basic bactericide antibiotics such as penicillin, ceftriaxone, cephalexin, and other similar;
- defects in proteins, closing the pores - "gaps" in the cell wall of microbes;
- skill microbe withdraw the drug from the cells.
How is Pseudomonas aeruginosa.There are ways of transmission:
- airborne (by coughing, sneezing, talking);
- pin (through household items, tools, doors, towels, taps);
- food (through insufficiently treated milk, meat or water).
can get infected through:
- broken skin or mucous membranes;
- umbilical wound;
- conjunctiva of the eye;
- mucosa any internal organ: the bronchi, urethra, bladder, trachea;
- gastrointestinal tract - when food is contaminated with bacteria got into it.
Most often still gets from Pseudomonas aeruginoza own body: from the upper respiratory tract or the intestine, where it can be OK in small amounts."Share" Pseudomonas aeruginosa is:
- man who lives in the lungs (and at the same time he coughs);
- when a person suffers from Pseudomonas stomatitis (inflammation of the oral mucosa) - then it allocates Pseudomonas when talking or sneezing;
- carrier bacteria (ie healthy people), when the rotor or pseudomonas inhabits the nasopharynx;
- when preparing food a person with festering wounds on the hands or exposed parts of the body.
main road yet - during manipulation in the hospital.
Again: cause disease bacterium can, if:
- she came in large numbers;
- it "brought" to the place where must be absolutely sterile;
- she got into broken skin or mucous membranes, in contact with the external environment (mouth, nose, conjunctiva, mouth, pharynx, genitals, the external opening of the urinary canal, the anus);
- reduced local immunity of the mucous membrane or skin;
- reduced defenses in general.
microorganism better than "fixed" in the mucous membranes, if the person has received some dose of any of his ways, then visited the bath, pool or sauna.
Who is at risk for infection
Pathogen particularly dangerous for:
- elderly over 60 years old;
- children during the first three months of life;
- debilitated people;
- patients with cystic fibrosis;
- requiring hemodialysis;
- patients with leukemia;
- received burns;
- people undergoing organ transplants;
- long receiving hormonal agents (eg, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or other systemic diseases);
- have malformations of the genitourinary system;
- chronic bronchitis;
- internally for a long time to be in the hospital.
can also predict what disease Pseudomonas etiology develop - by age, a primary pathology or ongoing manipulation
|risk factor||What may develop|
|often have to undergo intravenous procedures||Endocarditis.Osteomyelitis.|
|man sick with leukemia||Abscess in the gluteal muscle.Sepsis|
|Oncological diseases||Increased risk of pseudomonas pneumonia|
|Burns||may develop inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue (cellulitis), and sepsis|
|perform operations on the organs of the central nervous system||Meningitis|
|It produces tracheostomy||can develop Pseudomonas pneumonia|
|appeared corneal||ulcer may develop inflammation of membranes|
|eye wire catheter vascular||may develop thrombophlebitis|
|Need a bladder catheterization||infections of the genitourinarysystem|
|Newborn||Pseudomonas meningitis, inflammation of the intestines|
most often patients suffer from these branches:
- intensive care;
- surgery in which operations are performed on the abdomen, as well as opened abscesses and carbuncles;
- cardiac surgery.
Diseases caused by Pseudomonas aeruginoza
Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes various diseases, depending on the place where the infection enters.According to statistics, it is the causative agent:
- about 35% of all diseases of the urinary system;
- nearly a quarter of all purulent surgical pathologies;
- 5-10% of all community-acquired pneumonia;
- and 10-35% of the inflammation of the lung tissue that had developed on the third day or later after admission to hospital.
Getting into any organism, Pseudomonas aeruginosa passes through three stages of development:
- Attaches to the tissue through which it came, and then begins to proliferate there.Thus formed the primary focus of infection.
- spread from the primary tumor in the deeply lying tissue.
- Absorption of bacteria, with all its enzymes and toxins in the blood, and more blood flow to the pseudomonas spreads on other bodies.Thus, the appearance of soft tissues phlegmon at that stage can lead to the development of pneumonia, pyelonephritis, and even brain damage substance.
In only one symptom to say that the causative agent - Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is impossible, since it causes the same ear infections, pneumonia, gastroenteritis, as well as other bacteria (Klebsiella, Staphylococcus).To suspect this particular microbe may be, or the fact that a person has recently been treated in a hospital, or the ineffectiveness of starting antibiotic therapy (when appointed "ordinary" antibiotics, and the temperature continues to hold, and blood count does not improve).
main symptoms of Pseudomonas infection
given below symptoms of diseases caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, when antibiotic treatment has not yet been conducted.If the person receiving treatment, the clinical picture (ie, symptoms) often blurred, expressed softly.
Pseudomonas infection of upper respiratory tract
If Pseudomonas "justified" in the throat, the following symptoms occur:
- sore throat, worse when swallowing;
- temperature rise;
- red and swollen tonsils;
- cracked lips.
If Pseudomonas infection develops in throat, then appear:
- cough, usually dry, arising after the sore throat or discomfort, enhanced by adopting a horizontal position;
- temperature rise;
If pathogen "settled" in the nose , this leads to the development of a long cold, feeling of nasal congestion, decreased sense of smell, periodic headaches (most often - on the one hand, more in the forehead).
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ear causes of otitis externa, which manifests itself:
- advent of his yellow-greenish thick bloody discharge;
- hearing impairment;
To access the ENT doctor should be enough alone, purulent discharge from the ear.Self-medication is dangerous, as otitis externa Pseudomonas etiology able to progress rapidly, leading to inflammation of the middle ear, the accumulation of pus in the pneumatic mastoid sinuses, and even inflammation of the meninges.
Pseudomonas infection of the digestive system
If enough Pseudomonas proved in the gut, symptoms of infection develop gastroenterocolitis.It:
- first - vomiting recently eaten food, the pain "in his stomach";
- pain then moves to the navel and becomes more diffuse;
- arise weakness;
- loss of appetite;
- temperature rises to small numbers (up to 38 does not reach);
- chair common: up to 7 times a day, pappy, greenish;it has streaks of blood and / or mucus;
- all ends in 3-4 days without treatment, but the infection becomes chronic (less often - asymptomatic carriage).If this state has developed an HIV-infected person, the one who suffered organ transplantation, hormone-treated with glucocorticoids or have recently completed a course of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, can develop Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative sepsis.Why?