As is known, the disease is easier to prevent than to cure.But it is equally important to have originated in the body to recognize the disease and begin to heal properly.For many diseases for lost time - a lost opportunity to recover, preserve the quality and duration of life.
more important to know that for the majority of illnesses have the emergence and development risks.Correctly identify and assess risks, too, need time.Such tactics allows them to significantly reduce.
Today the world is moving medicine in two main areas:
- help build high-tech capabilities, which is expensive and available mostly in economically developed countries
- cost-effective spending of scarce budgets in the way of mass preventive care.
Of course, if the inspection and prevention - a formality, and a tribute to instructions, unreliable tests and physical examinations cursory and superficial - nothing will.
But there is the experience of the Soviet health care system in which, in spite of the absence of most of the modern methods of treatment, it was possible to control the majority of dangerous infections, the incidence of tuberculosis, in due time to begin treatment for peptic ulcer, reducing the number of its complications, to establish cancer care and improveits availability, provide the population with the free assistance of dentists.Among contemporary Cuban health system fails due to medical examination to significantly save on treatment, time revealing a large list of diseases.
In the West, before entering into a contract with an insurance organization prerequisite is passing the medical examination, the Russian Federation as of today no such practice.This does not mean that the case should be brought to the course.Just everyone should remember those minima clinical examination, which is to pass on certain stages of life.
Outset that obvious problems are solved as soon as they become available.That is, any health complaints should be referred to a doctor immediately, no matter what age they do not occur.
- But for healthy people today there is a polyclinic dispensary (which covers the working population)
- Either fashionable concept of check-up, meaning the checkup the doctor for early diagnosis or even to identify the risks of diseases and to obtain recommendations for their reduction.
Chekap provides for medical examination of healthy people, since 30 years, once every two or three years.
Chekap different for different clinics and health centers, but there is a certain average level to be observed in its conduct.Apart from the main chekapa there are specialized, for example:
- Cardiology: shows all over 50 years
- Cancer: after 50 and in the presence of suffering malignant tumors close relatives.
Men older than 30 years
Health after 30 may well be intact.But a certain minimum hygiene observations should be conducted, as many diseases considerably rejuvenated today.To be confident in their abilities, and build long-term plans without fear or threat of premature end, each young man after 30 years abroad should take place following a clinical minimum.
competent clinician even without expensive additional methods of examination may be suspected variations in health status.And the average practitioner can perform at least scapegoat function, issuing directions on the main analyzes and giving advice on the right person.
addition to examination the doctor measures your blood pressure and increase it conducts surveys that reveal the nature of hypertension.Quite often, it is at a young age hypertension remains without proper attention and treatment, which creates risks for the occurrence of its complications, such as strokes and heart attacks.At the same time, adequate lifestyle changes, smoking cessation, correction of excess weight, and if necessary, initiation of therapy antihypertensives may protect against the development of disease and disability in adulthood or old age.
also cardiac risks can be assessed by body mass index, which reveals the relationship between the growth-weight ratio, and abdominal obesity.According to BMI, patients can receive advice on diet and physical activity designed to protect against heart disease, diabetes, problems with the spine and joints.
required an assessment of the total cardiac risk, which is composed of heredity, age and sex of the patient, presence of his addiction to smoking, high blood sugar, disorders in lipid metabolism and BMI.
fluorography of the chest X-ray This melkokadrovy shot in one projection, which is under moderate load beam provides a picture of the state of the chest and, above all, is screening for pulmonary tuberculosis.With today's incidence of this pathology "flyushka" will be more important ECG and even blood tests.
course, taking into account the radiation exposure per year to do this procedure is not for everyone.But every two years, chest X-ray should be performed without fail.Every year, it carried risk groups, ie those who:
- constantly working with people - doctors, teachers, salesmen, etc.
- patients with diabetes and chronic pathologies of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital organs, patients on a regular corticosteroid.or cytostatic therapy
- migrants, internally displaced persons
CBC - "blood from a finger»
It is a simple blood test for assessing the status of red blood cells (deletion of anemia or blood clots, increasing the risk of thrombosis), to get an idea about the state of the immuneprotection and bone marrow (leykoformula), eliminate inflammation (erythrocyte sedimentation rate and white blood cells), to evaluate the blood clotting (platelets).
Blood Biochemistry - "blood from a vein»
It allows you to test-tube of venous blood, taken on an empty stomach, get a lot of valuable information about the work of the body (see the biochemical analysis of blood.).
- level of blood sugar excludes or allows to suspect diabetes.When deviations in terms of the control carried out a blood test from your finger on an empty stomach or after a consultation with an endocrinologist determined resistance to glucose.
- The level of cholesterol and lipid profile evaluated the risks of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.
- total protein, urea and creatinine provide insight into the work of the kidneys.
- bilirubin and its fractions, as well as transaminases (ALT and AST) can be suspected pathology of the liver and biliary tract.
- determined and the level of key electrolytes (sodium and potassium), it is important to assess kidney function and fluid and electrolyte balance.
Urinalysis detects kidney disease and urinary tract.It may indicate a urological problems.In order to determine the level of urinary tract lesions can be further assigned trehstakannaya test, which is optional in the absence of changes or complaints.
Indicates rhythm disturbances, changes in the heart muscle and cardiac conduction system.Indirectly may indicate overload cardiac chambers or thickening of the myocardium.By ECG in 30 years should be treated with reasonable skepticism and sure to make her life story and previous diseases.So.that the 50-year-old man can be considered menacing signs of the disease, 30-year-old athlete may just be the result of a trained attack.In all cases of dispute should be referred for cardiological chekap or visit the cardiologist who will prescribe ECHO cardioscope (ultrasound of the heart), and if necessary trade-mil or veloergometriju and cardiac MRI (see. The causes of pain in the heart).
They are not so much, and go through them makes sense even with a heavy load at work and busy personal lives.These few "people in white coats" literally allow sleep the next two or three years.
- At this age can already diagnose various hernial protrusion, (which it should operate, but not to speak at grandmas)
- also may develop early varicose disease of the lower extremities, the progression of which it is possible to stop the decline in intra-abdominal pressure, avoid excessive physical exertion, weight reduction and periodic Spann with his legs 45 degrees, as well as to treat detraleks (Venorusom).
- A digital rectal examination procedure is not very desirable, but it is quite painless and extremely prudent, and every two or three years pass it is possible.But thus excluded colon cancer, which is still detected in advanced stages, and which contribute to the emergence of long-term smoking and chronic inflammation in the rectal area.Learn more about the diagnosis of colorectal cancer.
- timely detection of neoplastic process successfully operated and leaves high chances of survival with a decent quality of life.
- Among other pathologies that may interest surgeon: cholelithiasis and urolithiasis.
- It will not only give competent advice on the prevention of degenerative disc disease complications, which have almost all already in his youth, but also be able to explain why numb hands at night for those who abuse sedentary work or youth interested in "iron".
- Also, the specialist is able to recognize the early symptoms for the onset of chronic disorders of cerebral circulation and separate them from migraine or plain vascular spasm.
- He can also find out how to remove anxiety, improve sleep and why of alcohol abuse are crawling on the skin shivers, legs do not go, or develop seizures.
Optometrist optometrist determines the visual acuity and examining the ocular fundus, which is available to mirror the state of the brain vessels.It is through the vessels of the retina is possible to draw conclusions about the complications of high blood pressure, risk of blindness and senility in the future.A good specialist can not only pick up points, but also to learn how to do eye massage, removing them from fatigue, why eye exercises and why you can not watch TV with the lights off, or more than two hours to sit at the computer screen.
He examines the thyroid area, excluding its increase or nodules, and then, if necessary, appoint a blood test for TSH and T4 hormones and thyroid ultrasound.Also, by this specialist is better to come to the results of a blood test for sugar (to avoid diabetes, or an occasion for further diagnostic search in this direction with a certain level of glycated hemoglobin or performance test glucose tolerance).Endocrinology and growth-estimated weighted indicators, the type of body hair, especially the skeleton structure and the proportionality of parts of the body endocrinologist can also suggest and hormonal type of hypertension for tumors of the adrenal, hypothalamic syndrome.
As a result of complaints, visual inspection and palpation can diagnose varicocele, cryptorchidism, congenital malformations of the external genitalia or suspected tumor.According to the testimony patsitentam appointed additional research: pelvic ultrasound, research protsaticheskogo secret.Sami urologists have long recognized that the stories about the epidemic of male genital problems fabricated by the experts think about their daily bread.Frequency true prostatitis requiring treatment and observation for the big money, significantly overestimated.
It is not included in the mandatory insurance program of clinical examination.But a visit to it is considered good manners to twice a year.It is for such a period of time simple problems with teeth and gums can develop into a serious threat to the integrity of a smile.
Women after 30 years
For the ladies middle-aged primary list of laboratory tests and specialist advice coincides with that of men.However, it should be noted that:
- risks of cardiovascular accidents in women before menopause is significantly lower than that of men, due to the protective effect
- estrogen is compensated by the greater predisposition to varicose disease of the lower extremities, especially against the background of repeated pregnancies and the propensity to thrombosisveins on the background of a combination of long-term use of oral contraceptives and smoking (see. pros and cons of birth control pills).
- alertness to develop hypertension and diabetes are relevant for women, especially in unfavorable heredity for this pathology.
- thyroid disease plagued the beautiful half of humanity is much more often than men.Particularly relevant autoimmune thyroiditis on the background of hormonal fluctuations during pregnancy.Therefore, women more appropriate to take a blood test for thyroid hormones before the visit to the endocrinologist and contact a specialist to have the finished result.
visit to the gynecologist in the preventive care program should be scheduled twice a year.In it, in addition to the survey and inspection in the mirror includes swabs for cytology (to eliminate cervical cancer and precancerous lesions diagnosis requiring treatment or clinical supervision) and palpation of the breast in order to eliminate tumors.
mammogram or breast ultrasound are included in the domestic Diagnostic least in women after 40 years.For young ladies, they are appointed by indications as breast cancer continues to get younger by leaps and bounds and is still diagnosed in the second and third stages, which is considered late diagnosis for outdoor localization of cancer.
For a relatively young men and women.who crossed the threshold of thirty, but have not yet reached forty, it is advisable to:
- immediately quit smoking
- exercise moderation in the use
- alcohol not to overeat, and keep track of weight, maintaining body mass index in the range of up to 26
- ladies at the same time is not recommendeddramatically lose weight and have a deficit because of the risks of hormonal imbalance
- have at least 8-10 hours per week of aerobic loads
- sleep at least 7-8 hours a day
- conduct primary prevention of sexually transmitted infections and promptly treat acute diseasesreproductive system
- sanitize foci of infection in the mouth, throat and nose
- avoid the production of harmful substances, excessive use of cosmetics and household chemistry (see. harmful substances in cosmetics, household chemical effects on health, women chistyuli bring its climax)
- not liveunder high-voltage lines near industrial plants and sources of ionizing radiation.
Health after 40
Forty years - an age which in Russia is not even accepted to celebrate.The fact is that to this point the young enthusiasm and armor reserves of the body is somewhat reduced.After 40 often the disease is still well compensated or are being pre-disease.
For 40 years often drove mild depression, finished in a large number of citizens turn into a protracted bipolar disorder.Especially from depression and anxiety disorders are affected residents of large cities, belonging to the category of office workers.Thus men suffer more than women, living alone are more likely than family.
Among other mental disorders a high percentage of alcohol.Here men confidently hold the bar championship.