Everyone knows how to affect the duration and quality of life of the high pressure, but the problem of low blood pressure are often one-on-one sufferers are those who got it by inheritance or by force of circumstances.
Low blood pressure is considered to be not greater than 100 mm Hg at 65All figures, which do not reach this threshold, may lead to a deterioration of the blood supply to the periphery of the body and cause a number of unpleasant symptoms and changes associated with oxygen deprivation in the organs and tissues.
condition is the name of hypotension.Low top pressure speaks of reducing the contractile ability of the heart, low bottom - about the problems with the vascular component of his or kidney failures.
Low pressure in healthy
In the absence of diseases physiological hypotension may occur under certain environmental conditions:
- in hot climates with high humidity
- in workers of hot shops
- at high altitudes
- most prone to low blood pressure athletes
- people engaged in physical labor with significant loads.
low pressure Low blood pressure may be congenital or acquired under the influence of external factors.The main situation in which the pressure falls below acceptable standards, as follows.
VVD and discoordination vascular center in the medulla oblongata lead to the fact that the lumen of blood vessels is not enough narrows when changing the external conditions of the environment and the pressure is not maintained at a level sufficient for normal operation of the body (see. The symptoms of vegetative-vascular dystonia).
Cerebral arteriosclerosis in the elderly and the elderly has a similar mechanism of hypotension.Rigid calcified vessels can not change its clearance quickly enough and a well, plus impaired blood supply to the vascular center at the background of the same atherosclerotic changes in vessels of the brain.
Reduced blood volume
sharp drop in circulating blood volume:
- against the backdrop of blood loss (see uterine bleeding, bleeding from the anus, bleeding from the nose, etc...)
- dehydration due to diarrhea, vomiting, misuse of diuretics orinadequate fluid intake - leads to a decrease in pressure in the bloodstream.
fall of the contractility of the heart (acute myocardial infarction, cardiac tamponade, blink, or atrial fibrillation or ventricular sudden coronary death) does not provide sufficient blood output and its pressure (pressure drop).
Such endocrine pathology as adrenal insufficiency, hypothyroidism necessarily accompanied by low pressure numbers.When adrenal insufficiency in the body do not have enough hormones adrenal cortex.Aldosterone deficiency leads to a drop in the fluid level in the body due to loss of sodium.Falling levels of thyroid hormones leads to a decrease in blood pressure due to lack of vascular tone and decrease in heart rate.
thromboembolism pulmonary artery
thromboembolism of a pulmonary artery, where the major pulmonary vessel occluded by a thrombus of the inferior vena cava - rather frequent cause of acute hypotension.
Thermal shock, anaphylactic or painful shock
Any collapse (such as heat stroke, intoxication) or shock (pain, infectious-toxic, anaphylactic shock), leading to a sharp Escrow blood in the vessels of the abdomen, bleeding of the periphery (the brain and extremities), accompanied by low blood pressure.
- Anemia - chronic anemia of any origin, the disease, giving hidden bleeding (hemorrhoids, uterine fibroids, ulcerative colitis, erosive gastritis, peptic ulcer disease), are secondary to chronic blood pressure lowering.
- Injury - traumatic brain injury can cause increased intracranial pressure and low peripheral because of the hydrodynamic impact of cerebrospinal fluid on the vasomotor center.
- oncology patients - cancer patients in stage cachexia also suffer from low blood pressure numbers.
- medication - this drug hypotension as a result of overdoses antihypertensives, diuretics, cardiac glycosides, nitrates, muscle relaxants, hypnotics and psychotropic.
Symptoms Symptoms of low pressure may occur in the program independent disease (hypotension) or as a secondary condition in other diseases.Criteria hypotension as nosology:
- pressure below 110-100 65-70 for a year or longer
- early signs of hypotension 9c adolescence)
- hypertensive crises
- no reason to secondary hypotension.
Skin in hypotensive patients often pale, cold and wet.Since the usual low blood pressure, as a rule, the predominant influence of the parasympathetic nervous system, the skin of the white dermographism resistant.Against the background of chronic oxygen starvation of the tissues can be blue shadows under the eyes or brown circles around them.In acute hypotension is added to the pallor cyanosis nasolabial triangle and terminal phalanges.If hypotension is caused by hypothyroidism, the skin is pale, swollen and dry.Brittle nails and hair.
Gastrointestinal disorders gastrointestinal
Changes can also be very diverse.If hypotension - secondary with chronic mikrokrovopoter from the gastrointestinal tract, the case is likely to go on hyperacidity gastritis, peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis.Then it will be marked by different intensity of pain in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract, heartburn.Belching air or food, defecation disorders (constipation or diarrhea).In hypothyroidism there is a decrease of enzyme activity and gastric acidity.Deteriorating processes of digestion and absorption, there is a tendency to constipation and dyspepsia.
central nervous system
condition of the central nervous system is also affected differently.In acute conditions hypotension (shock, collapse) or traumatic brain injuries clouded consciousness or lost.If hypotension endocrine genesis marked lethargy, deterioration of memory and learning.In hypotensive patients, as a rule, low efficiency, fatigue and drowsiness.Even after a long night's sleep, people with hypotension may feel extremely frustrated.
lightweight low pressure react compensatory dyspnea (especially in the load), which is designed to improve the oxygen supply of tissues.When pulmonary embolism or pulmonary edema can listen to different crackles, and separated pinkish sputum.
Indicators of the heart may be in the normal range, and vary considerably.For example, in acute vascular events (pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, stroke) can be low pressure and low pulse.There may be situations when the background of frequent uneven heartbeats marked hypotension (eg, ventricular fibrillation very low pressure).
Symptomatic hypotension with adrenal insufficiency
If low blood pressure is caused by deficiency of adrenal cortex, the symptoms of it are as follows.
- progressive muscle weakness, fatigue, drop in efficiency When a primary chronic disease mineralocorticoid (Addison's disease).Hypertension is persistent progressive nature.Compensatory quickens the heartbeat and pulse.There hyperpigmentation of the skin.Nausea, vomiting and unsteadiness chair combined with abdominal pain.Drops of blood sugar.There are frequent night urination.CNS is responsible distracted attention, memory fall, depression.
- Secondary adrenal nedostaochnost proceeds similarly, but are not characterized by hyperpigmentation of the skin for it.
- Adissonichesky crisis - an acute condition where blood mineralocorticoid fall quite sharply.Against this background, developing a rapid decrease in blood pressure, heart failure, uncontrollable vomiting and diarrhea leads to rapid dehydration.Mental Disorders replaced with excitement to a sharp retardation, sopor and coma.
Causes of low pressure in women
Women most often bring themselves to themselves hypotension.
- passion for mono-diet, fasting, vegetarianism - nutritional causes of low blood pressure.
- In menstruating give the root cause can be banal anemia in the background giving up eating meat, combined with disregard for the primary prevention of anemia drugs iron during menstruation.
- anemizatsii can occur in the presence of uterine fibroids, hemorrhoids.
Pregnant women can suffer from pressure drops against the backdrop of a sharp rise in progesterone during the first trimester.In the later stages of polyhydramnios, twin pregnancy, the inferior vena cava syndrome and all of the same iron-deficiency anemia.Most often due to the growing belly deteriorating venous return to the heart, and helps to reduce cardiac output and blood pressure yields fall.
In any case, if the low pressure first developed during pregnancy, what to do, should be decided by an obstetrician-gynecologist in conjunction with the physician and endocrinologist.
If the pressure is high, then low
blood pressure jumps are always less desirable than consistently high or consistently low numbers.Frequent blood pressure differences are too great strain on the vessels and can be forerunners of cerebral or cardiac events (heart attack or stroke), as facilitate separation of the already formed thrombus or atherosclerotic plaque cracking.Which then thrombosing.
- inadequately matched antihypertensive therapy in hypertension leads to the fact that excessive dose or dosing frequency of drugs excessively lower blood pressure (see. All preparations for pressure reduction).Unusually low pressure causes patients to grasp at coffee or stimulants, which give a second jump in blood pressure.It formed a vicious circle, which sooner or later will end bad.
- weather-sensitive people with vascular dystonia often have a pressure drop from high to low and vice versa (see. As magnetic storms affect health).
- Expressed atherosclerosis can cause sudden pressure change, especially the downs.
- Against the background of alcohol abuse vascular reaction may be paradoxical, and vasodilation can change their sharp spasm.
- Spastic or sharp pain in the abdomen can cause spikes in blood pressure.
- Chronic stress triggers blood pressure instability.
Treatment of hypotension
Therapeutic measures for hypotension correction must begin with:
- normalization day mode - full sleep at night, eliminating stress and overload
- also important to fully eat, get enough vitamins
- avoid dehydration and intestinalinfections.
Reasonable exercise causes the muscles to throw into the bloodstream additional blood volume, heart work harder, adrenal glands and normalizes the blood flow in the vascular center, responsible for the blood pressure (see. As well as to increase the pressure at home).
For chronic hypotension therapy most soft drugs are adaptogens of plant and animal materials.These funds increase the tone of the vascular center, gently pushing the heart and blood vessels constrict.In addition to improving blood pressure, these tools reduce fatigue, drowsiness and negate some increase overall tone, and human performance.
- Pantocrine (80-100 rubles), extracts of Leonurus (10 rubles), ginseng (40-70 rubles), devil and lemongrass (30-100 rubles), Rhodiola rosea tincture (30 rubles) and tincture aralia (40-50 rubles).Tablets Saparal on the Manchurian Aralia basis can be used as a pressure stimulants.
- Traditional adaptogenes include some sort of red wine, such as Cahors.Of course, it must be taken on a dessert spoon per day, rather than liters.
In acute pressure drops (hypertensive crises, orthostatic blood pressure reduction, fainting) more effective alfaadrenomimetiki.Preparations pressurized by stimulating alpha-adrenergic receptors, which leads to narrowing of arteries and maintaining a constant volume of circulating blood in the bloodstream.At the same time reduced drowsiness and fatigue.
- Solutions for injections and pills Gutron, Midodrin, Midamin effectively increase blood pressure.They are contraindicated in hypertension, circulatory failure, rhythm disorders, hyperthyroidism, glaucoma, kidney failure.
- The solutions are used and Mezaton (Phenylephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine), and fetanola, mephentermine produced in the form of pills.
- central nervous system stimulants is possible to increase the pressure and accelerate learning processes, reduce fatigue.
- indirect agonists - Caffeine is sodium benzoate.
- Analeptics stimulating the vasomotor center - it Etilefrin, Effort, Simptol, Nitetsamid, Kordiamin, Etimizol, Akrinor.
- Analeptics realizing the effects of the spinal cord: securinine, Angiotensinamide.
- When the low pressure and high pulse, what to do, can tell anticholinesterase agents (Bellataminal, Ginos, Bromenval).
Thus, low pressure - it's not always easy to depression and chronic fatigue, but also the risks of vascular accidents.Therefore, when a low pressure is not wise to self-medicate, and should undergo a full examination by a physician or neurologist.